Researchers conducted a systematic review of published rheumatology-focused continuing professional development (CPD) for primary care clinicians. A database search identified 725 articles from North America, and nine were included in the review. The results indicated that non-inflammatory arthritis received more CPD focus than inflammatory arthritis, and autoimmune diseases were underrepresented. Newer research leaned toward multi-modal formats combining didactic and active learning, with a movement toward more active learning. The interventions were mainly face-to-face despite the growing popularity of e-learning, and the studies were generally of moderate quality. "Published studies of rheumatology-focused CPD are moving towards more interactive teaching modalities and are typically conducted in-person though virtual options for rheumatology-focused CPD should be explored to improve access to CPD," the authors wrote. They noted that CPD's effectiveness was not easily evaluated, since few of the reviewed studies focused on patient outcomes.