Researchers propose a new taxonomy for defining and deploying just-in-time continuing education (JiTCE) to advance learner engagement and program sustainability. The JiTCE architecture identifies perceived-unperceived and pull-push (PUPP) taxonomy as required mechanisms for meeting continuing professional development (CPD) needs and delivery procedures. The taxonomy's key elements for designing and developing a JiT program are on-demand learning, subscription-based learning, performance feedback–driven learning and data-driven learning. These components utilize various online technologies that underpin JiTCE. The authors conclude that PUPP "can help guide new opportunities for instructional designers and curriculum developers to leverage best practices to align with CPD offerings, which include cutting-edge technologies."